- What information should contain a business plan for greenhouse agriculture
- Summary of hothouse business plan
- stages of the project
- algorithms action, prescribed in the business plan of hothouse
- The business plan of hothouse spelled out the following actions to start a business algorithms:
- The urgency of the opening of business on greenhouses
- Business risks in the organization of hothouse
- The choice of the legal form for the KFH
- Forms and types of greenhouses
- Installation of lighting and heaters in greenhouses
- Ventilation in the greenhouse
- Watering and care
- Features of hothouse taxation
- How to pay the land tax
- project costs
- Documentation of hothouse business plan
- How to get the land for the farm free
- What are the conditions for obtaining a plot of land for free?
- Forecast of consumption of products of greenhouse farming settlement period
What information should contain a business plan for greenhouse agriculture
Summary of hothouse business plan
- This project - a plan for the creation of a private enterprise for the organization of hothouse business plan
for 24 of the month. First of all, list the key points of the process of creating a business plan for the launch of hothouse. In the first place there is the project idea, and objectives of the project, such as:
- Creation of an enterprise with high level of profitability.
- Receiving a profit legal way, indicating the legal address, Head of passport data and project founder, Employee Information.
- Satisfaction of consumers demand to fill consumer demand for fresh vegetables, fruits and fresh herbs without nitrates and chemical additives.
- nature of the enterprise: enterprise for the implementation of fresh vegetables, fruits and fresh herbs without chemical additives and nitrates.
- Enabling and cover consumer demand.
- Finding and conclusion of contracts with investors.
- Project cost: 1 342 554,81 rubles
- financing of the project: By obtaining a commercial loan in the amount of 1 342 554,81
- To implement the project the company needs to take out a loan in the amount of RUR 24 settlement months discount rate 14%.
- payback period: 2 of the year.
- the investor's income will be 328 677,78 rubles.
- Payment of interest on the loan starting from the first month of this project.
- Repayment begins with 7 project implementation. This fact is entered in this business plan to facilitate understanding of the structure for calculating the flow regulation discounted cash flow and. Repayment begins with the first month of the project. This fact is entered in this business plan to facilitate understanding of the structure for calculating the flow regulation discounted cash flow and.
- Implicit interest rate on borrowings 5 %. Should be considered, that at present banks are reviewing the rate of interest for investment projects downward. Besides, should take into account the fact, that credit facilities for agricultural projects are issued on more favorable terms.
- The total amount of accrued interest will be 328 677,78 rubles.
- The payback period from the beginning of the project 5 months.
- Payback period with discounting 3, 5 year year.
- The overall economic benefits of the project for the life cycle of a conditional 14 074 679,37 rubles.
stages of the project
|stages of the project||Test conditions||Deadlines|
|The conclusion of the investment agreement||1 project of the month||1-30 banking days|
|Adding to the state register, registration with the administrative and tax authorities, harmonization of statutory and other documents||The conclusion of the investment agreement||1-30 calendar days|
|The conclusion of the contract with the land owner (rental or purchase)||The conclusion of the investment agreement||1-30 calendar days|
|Signing the contract for construction of administrative premises||The conclusion of the investment agreement||1 -30 calendar days|
|Purchase, greenhouse construction, communications holding , heating system||The conclusion of the investment agreement||1 -30 calendar days|
|Buying equipment, packaging line, supply line||The conclusion of the investment agreement||1 -30 calendar days|
|Purchase of specialized furniture and equipment||The conclusion of the investment agreement||1 -30 calendar days|
|Buying seedlings and seeds, fertilizer, spets.odezhdy, inventory||The conclusion of the investment agreement||1-30 calendar days|
|Signing the contract for the signaling connection and protection of the territory by special services||Installation of specialized security equipment||1 -30 calendar days|
|hiring workers, training.||Completion of the installation of greenhouses and equipment||1-30 calendar days|
|Start planting works||Completion of the installation of greenhouses and equipment||depending on the cultivated culture|
|Implementation of measures for the cultivation of the crop||Depending on the cultivated culture||depending on the cultivated culture|
|Conducting pre-sales marketing activities||The conclusion of the investment agreement||throughout the period of activity|
|First harvest||Depending on the cultivated culture||1-360 calendar days|
|Implementation of harvest||Completion of the first harvest||1 -360 banking days|
|Preparation for winter season||Completion of the first harvest||1 -360 banking days|
|Beginning of a new planting season||Completion of the first harvest||1 -360 banking days|
on the video: As the guard became an agronomist! / greenhouses – hard work?
algorithms action, prescribed in the business plan of hothouse
The business plan of hothouse spelled out the following actions to start a business algorithms:
- The methods and techniques of analysis target audience, drawing up a portrait of the ideal customer, its solvency ratio.
- Business Registration in the state regulatory and tax authorities.
- Hiring qualified employees, able to fulfill customer wishes and be ready to work. Another item of expenditure considered hiring employees. Specialists will take the vacant positions on a competitive basis, As employees of the total, maintenance and temporary nature with a decent competitive pay. Nominations applicants for the position will be reviewed within 30 calendar days.
- services, now rendered.
The urgency of the opening of business on greenhouses
Today, a significant increase vegetable consumption, grown in local greenhouses, which has contributed to a lot of the policy of import substitution, as well as loyalty programs for beginning farmers. planned, that by the year 2020 the consumption of greenhouse vegetables will be about ten kilograms per year.
The share of imported vegetables continued to fall steadily: So, if during the period 2013-2014 Year to Russia were imported more 1 000 000 tons of tomatoes and cucumbers, and 2016 on imports accounted for only 578 000 tonnes.
Business risks in the organization of hothouse
- Small window of opportunity to get credit in the financial institution on favorable terms;
- increased price of land and electrification of large utilities. So, generating their own cost in the beginner farmer 40 000 000 rubles for 1 megawatt. You can think about the path connecting to networks Federal Grid Company.
- It reduced the possibility of placing the hothouse areas on a limited land area;
- reduced efficiency in connection to water supply and vodoootvedeniya. Setting personal osmosis system bears sometimes back-breaking spending for startups;
- attract qualified conscientious staff to work in the greenhouses of today is almost impossible, some businesses are hiring for that residents of other countries;
- lack of qualification standards Agronomy. Study of features of work in greenhouses for today's graduates of agricultural universities today is not;
- limited list of sales representatives, who are ready to cooperate on the basis of small retail;
- to receive a grant from the state, or win a tender for state order, you need to spend a lot of resources, and the result is not guaranteed 100%;
- restrictions imposed by the administration and local government;
- the need to take when you make a loan as a guarantor representative of big business, which also has outstanding credit line;
- Today in Russia there are no organizers greenhouse projects;
- lack of engineering companies, which fully build a greenhouse on a pre-approved project.
The choice of the legal form for the KFH
For business registration greenhouses optimally suitable form of KFH - peasant farming, which will give certain privileges and exemptions of the tax burden, and will also allow to take loans on more favorable terms.
First of all, a novice businessman needs to familiarize himself with the following regulatory framework: Federal Law number 74 (http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_42662/).
This legislative document sets out the principles, according to which the vast majority of households operate in Russia.
Greenhouse, in this way, allowed to form individually or in partnership with several relatives. The main purpose of hothouse will conduct agricultural activities in a certain area, production, processing and storage of products with a view to the subsequent marketing. KFH member may be a third party, however, the number of KFH members should not exceed five. KFH may exist based on the shape of individual entrepreneurship.
creating KFH, you can rely on one more important document – Civil Code, article 86.1 (http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_5142/090c617ed1c2452f3ce1c7e2d24ee7269312143e/). It Specified, that a group of persons or a civilian has the right to open the KFH, without the registration of the legal entity.
For, To register KFH in funds, you must choose the form of IP- it is easier and faster to issue all. In this way, No additional constituent documents and making mandatory the amount of the authorized capital.
on the video: How to make a million rubles for the tomatoes in the greenhouse?
For, to get really the greenhouse, which fit the chosen format of work, It is necessary to clarify some important issues:
- What culture are you going to grow in the greenhouse.
- What size will reach seedlings.
- The greenhouse is designed for use in cold or warm season.
- Accommodation Project greenhouses, the possibility of summing Communications (water supply, electric power supply, heat supply)
- Will use automation or manual labor.
- Finance Size, which are planned to purchase the necessary set of equipment.
The answers to these questions will help to solve the problems with the choice of material, size and equipment of greenhouses.
Remember, that greenhouse, Custom, take into account in its design features of the region, which will be installed, and must comply with quality certificates.
Forms and types of greenhouses
By type design greenhouses are:
- arch- form significantly prolongs the life of the greenhouse, uses less material in the manufacture of
- rectangular- allow for optimal lighting, simple, comfortable
- pristennye- experts call them among the most economical, since less material is consumed to manufacture. It is best to mount on the south side of buildings.;
- pyramids - quite difficult to manufacture, meet the aesthetic requirements, but more difficult to operate
- polygonal- most often they are used for the cultivation of flowers and fresh greens, reminiscent in style pergola execution.
on the video: How to start a greenhouse business, which start building greenhouses and what
By type of materialat:
- Made of glass, on a metal frame. are expensive, heavy, fragile. In this case, special glass is used., which transmits ultraviolet radiation. Requires a well-fortified deep foundation.
- Film on a frame made of metal or wood. attaching a simple type, reliable. The main advantage is considered to be a rapid process of heating and protecting seedlings from frost up 2 degrees Celcius. foundations equipment is required, however, these greenhouses almost nobody uses in modern conditions.
- Reinforced-plastic - a conventional film greenhouses, reinforced reinforced mesh. These greenhouses can be used in regions with parts of the castle, It has a long service life.
- Polycarbonate on a frame made of metal. Most popular today. Have the effect of double glazing. greenhouses, made of polycarbonate -100, They have increased the capacity of UV and heat up much more quickly. They are easier to install, carry, and low cost of consumables and increased strength for a long time prolong performance.
- Spanbodnye - greenhouses, made of nonwoven fabric of white. Popular regions, where winter frosts do not exceed 7 degrees. It can be used for seven consecutive seasons.
Installation of lighting and heaters in greenhouses
How to choose the lighting and heating units in greenhouses? It is necessary to take into account such factors, as the size of the greenhouse, materials, from which it is made, type of crop, you are going there to grow, as well as the price of devices and their life.
The advantage of using films
The film from leading manufacturers, word having several protective, It provides:
- DROP effect.
- Protection from antioxidants.
- Complete protection against pests and insects.
- It protects against the creation of a greenhouse of water vapor - "fog".
- Protection from exposure to cold air from the outside and the internal heat.
- Protection from wind.
In most cases, the film is mounted via galvanized aluminum or PVC profiles with clamps and locks. Between the layers of the film through the turbine is fed continuously warmed air. This layer provides additional rigidity, and protection from adverse environmental factors.
For business choose film, comprising metallocene polyethylene, which provide sufficient strength and transparency. So, tensile strength of conventional polyethylene film, usually, is 20-21 MPa. Besides, metallocene polyethylene is subjected to less contamination of the dust and has an increased strength at the joints.
Most often in greenhouses set the following types of discharge lamps: luminescent, induction, natrievыe. It is worth noting, that these lamps are energy efficient, which has a positive effect on the cost price of the product grown.
The main disadvantage of such lamps - is the need to address extremely cautious with them. Poisonous contents of the flasks, developing into, It can poison plants and they will be very dangerous for human consumption. Heating in the greenhouse can be carried out by using a gas boiler capacity, and in operation and wood stoves. Modern farmers often use infrared lights., and that's why.
Reasons to use infrared radiation to heat the inside of greenhouses, maybe a few:
- Economical power consumption, Consequently, reduction in utilities costs.
- There is no need to install sprays, cleaners and humidifiers.
- Simplified installation.
- Fire performance is at the highest level., therefore, do not be afraid of constant inspections by the fire safety service.
- Can be installed on a wall or ceiling, which saves valuable space.
on the video: winter greenhouse. Growing onions.
Ventilation in the greenhouse
Ventilation in the greenhouse should be a sure - it will provide a high yield and product freshness.
Watering and care
You can choose a lot of watering methods, it all depends on personal preference and budget business, as well as the growing crop and land area.
- Manual (You can facilitate this process, making a series of holes in the hose and equipping them with droppers).
- Mechanical (a number of separation systems are installed, taking water from one large tank).
- Hydroponics - this method is much more economical in terms of soil and water consumption, harvesting is easier, and caring for plants is easier.
What is the advantage of using drip irrigation systems in greenhouses. Modern technology allows you to control not only the humidity system in greenhouses, but also monitor compliance with the correct level of microclimate. The drip irrigation system allows for uniform distribution of an aqueous solution of nutrients and trace elements to the root zone of each plant using a number of pipelines and droppers.
We recommend using compost and humus as fertilizer, keep the greenhouse clean and use safe decontamination methods. To have high yields, take care, so that in one area those plants were planted, who get along well. So, pepper and radish react normally to each other, but tomatoes and sage will not take root next to cucumbers and fennel. Potatoes are best planted separately from all crops, especially if you breed elite varieties.
on the video: The device of the greenhouse for growing flowers. Flower business of the Kaygorodtsevs.
Features of hothouse taxation
For each type of culture, it is necessary to select the appropriate OKVED codes. So, if you plan to grow roses on your plot, need code 01.12.2 Ornamental gardening and nursery production. The taxation system can be chosen according to the taste of the business owner - from basic to simplified.
The legislation provides for three types of taxation for farmers:
- OSN, or main,
- USN (simplified system),
- ESHN, which was established and developed specifically for agricultural enterprises. The introduction of this system allows to significantly expand the range of activities of a modern farmer and attracts profitable startups to this area., and also allows the introduction of a number of technological innovations to significantly facilitate human manual labor.
The main difference between peasant farms and other types of entrepreneurial activity, the process of recalculation of the amount of payment of land tax is considered. The type of activity of peasant farms is limited by legislative acts. At the same time, the farm must receive at least seventy percent of the profit received from its direct activities., namely, from growing, processing sales of agricultural products.
It should be noted separately that the special system of taxation of the ESNH is working exclusively for farms. (uniform agricultural tax), according to which the land tax is calculated according to a special scheme. The government of the Russian Federation offers grants from year to year, support and loyalty programs for those farmers, who are just starting their own business.
So, the farmer has every right to submit a simplified reporting form less often, than the owners of other activities, and also enjoy a reduced tax rate. Regardless of, the farmer is engaged in greenhouse farming, or raises rabbits or nutria, he is obliged to exploit this or that land plot, and payment of land tax does not depend on the size of the allotment, its area and methods of operation. For, to better understand the issues of land tax payment, you should pay attention to the following regulation –
http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_28165/3e9f1c202800e8bc7adecd0fc2ac88ad3207771c/), as well as to the clarifying article of the document (http://www.consultant.ru/document/Cons_doc_LAW_28165/fd2ac88b2311a6053a128cfa43aa07672e826213/) which reveals the features of tax rates, fair for various business entities with reference to the relevant regulations.
The main taxes paid
|Tax on profits||Profit||Month||20%|
|NDS||The amount of the transaction||month||18%|
|Income tax||wages fund||month||13%|
Most often, the amount of land tax is regulated by the cadastral value of a particular piece of land. Data on the cadastral price of land can be clarified in Rosreestr. article 395 of the same normative act, you can find a listing of those business entities, who are eligible for benefits.
Usually experts point out 2 type of land taxation:
- tax, which the citizen is obliged to pay after, how did you acquire a piece of land,
- tax, to which peasant- farms.
The first type of tax has a number of benefits – So, the founder of the farm has the right to 13% discount when buying a plot of land for conducting your own activities on it, excluding private use and construction of non-agricultural purposes. The state has also provided for another pleasant benefit for the owners of peasant farms - this is the so-called preferential corridor - a special period of five years, during which the individual entrepreneur pays the minimum land tax rates.
It should be emphasized, that a novice farmer can apply for such a benefit not at the start of a business, and at that time, when the activity starts to generate income - after the successful profitable sale of the first batch of products. The generally accepted tax rate for a land plot is 15% from the cadastral value of the site.
How to pay the land tax
You must personally appear at the office of the Federal Tax Service at the end of the reporting period. The FTS will give you a declaration corresponding to your type of business activity, in which you must fill in the proposed parameters.
This procedure can be carried out online, when the declaration is filed electronically https://service.nalog.ru/payment/tax-fl.html. The business owner will only need to correctly fill in all available details and pay the final amount. It is better, if the calculation of land tax will be carried out by an accountant on the basis of an outsourcing agreement.
The calculation of the amount required for payment will be carried out taking into account such factors as:
- Land area according to documents.
- Odds rate.
- The cadastral price of each square meter of land.
- Remember, that the size of the cadastral value is a variable value, and changes from year to year.
The increase in its price is influenced by the location, total cost of plots in the region, soil quality, her fertility, connection to communications, assignment of allotment. An important role is played by the distance of the site from the nearest settlement and the level of its social development and infrastructure.
Remember, that land tax must be paid in full - evasion of payment or payment of a partial amount threatens with penalties and the accrual of a significant amount of interest for each day of delay.
|Qty||per month||in year||One-time purchase||Total costs per year|
|Land lease||50 thousand. sq.m||25 000||300 000||300 000|
|VAT refund from the budget||18,00%||25 00||30 000||30 000|
|Construction of buildings of the administrative building||3 317 760||39 813 120||39 813 120|
|Construction of vegetable stores||291 666,67||3 500 000||3 500 000|
|Purchase of greenhouses with automatic systems: heating and mortar node||20||4 028 727||80 574 540||80 574 540|
|VAT paid (to return from the budget)||604 309,05||0||604 309,05||604 309,05|
|Building and installing (35%) of the cost without VAT||1 198 546,28||0||27 989 580,83||27 989 580,83|
|11rovedenie power, heating system, communications holding, payment of electricity, SML||1 400 000||1 400 000|
|Buying equipment, packaging line, pine feed||8 841 653||8 841 653|
|Buying seedlings and seeds, fertilizer, spets.odezhdy, inventory||3 000 000||3 000 000|
|Buying a car||380 000||380 000|
|Purchase of office furniture||set||15 000||15 000|
|Purchase of computer equipment||2||25 000||50 000||50 000|
|Buying a network of licensed software||9 800||9 800|
|personnel salary||12||540 960||6 491 520||6 491 520|
|– including. taxes||12||172 960||2 075 520||2 075 520|
|Utilities, link||12||52 500||630 000||630 000|
|Conducting marketing company||12||75 000||900 000||900 000|
|Unexpected expenses (10% the project cost)||12||1 228 050,12||1 228 050,12|
|in total:||10 334 929||53 799 960||124 033 133||177 228 783,95|
Documentation of hothouse business plan
- GOST R 576712017 Devices irradiation with LED light sources for greenhouses. General specifications
- Federal-Law-on-08.08.2001-N-129 FZ-red.-of-31.12.2017
- Fresh green onions. specifications
- Guidelines for the technological design of greenhouses and greenhouse combines for cultivation of vegetables and sprouts
- Occupational safety and health of workers greenhouses. Guidelines
- Conservatories and Greenhouses. The updated edition of SNIP 2.10.04-85
- The primary documentation-on-opening-activity
How to get the land for the farm free
For, to equip a howling business in greenhouses, it is not necessary to buy land or lease a plot of land. You can get a grant from the state or a fertile land allotment for free from the state as part of a support program for novice farmers.
What are the conditions for obtaining a plot of land for free?
First of all, it is necessary to study the current legislation, on the matter, and also make sure that, that the selected allotment is fully consistent with the goals, which are entrusted to him. In this case, it is the placement of greenhouses and the cultivation of flowers., green, vegetables. Pay particular attention to the provisions of the codes - Tax and Land.
So, the exploitation of land for farming purposes of the next purpose is strictly not allowed:
- Earth, protected area (parks, protected areas and other).
- Owned by law enforcement and departmental structures.
- Specialized structures.
General rules, which regulate the process of obtaining a free piece of land, set out in article 39.10 Land Code of the Russian Federation (http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_33773/f6fb5e26212db7c34ed9e1fc1e33a10f57b19470/). The main condition is the use of land exclusively for agricultural purposes. The term of use of such a site on a gratuitous basis is five years, at the same time, after the expiration of this period, it can be transferred in the same way free of charge to another person.
When, if the land plot belongs to the department (as a state, and municipal), the period of its free operation for the purpose of growing agricultural products cannot exceed a period of six years. The site can be obtained in an accelerated and general terms. Consideration of a candidate's application for a land plot free of charge, usually takes two weeks. Also needed a project, which will confirm the legality of the established boundaries of the site, – it will take 30 calendar days. It takes about seven days to consider and draw up an agreement on, the site will be transferred to full ownership or on the basis of a lease agreement.
Land on a gratuitous basis of a strictly established size can be obtained for:
- Growing vegetables and fruits
- Breeding chickens, ducks, geese, guinea fowl, quail
- Growing flowers
- Fish farming, crayfish.
The decision of local authorities to refuse to issue a land plot can be disputed in court.
What documents are needed in order, to get a plot of land for farming for free?
- Application of a candidate for a site. The application must include the following information: for what purposes the applicant plans to use this land plot, what methods will be used,
- Agreement on the organization of a farm,
- Applicant's rights to this land plot
- Conditions for transferring the site for use - they will pay for it, or not
- It is necessary to prove the need to obtain a plot for use. Here you can specify the number of participants of the farm , production volume, which you plan to produce and sell, as well as the location of the site.
Most willingly, on a free basis, land is given with its subsequent sale to the applicant, or the subsequent execution of a lease agreement. Sometimes they appoint a buyout of the site through the organization of an auction. Lease with further transfer of land to ownership is regulated by the Land Code, namely articles 39.5 (http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_33773/) and 39.10 (http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_33773/).
Land plots usually participate in auctions, considered to be deprived of ownership, missing on the inventory map, then the plot is plotted on cadastral maps, submit documents drawn up in accordance with the established legislation to the department, prepare all the necessary legal documents, are studying the possibilities of erecting agricultural buildings on the site, and then open trading.
Before, how to bid for a land plot, it is necessary to go through the registration procedure of the peasant farm itself.
on the video: winter greenhouse
Forecast of consumption of products of greenhouse farming settlement period
|Period||Realization of production of hothouse of the ripening period||The volume of provided services, thousand. t||price||Revenues from sales (thousand. rub.)|
|1 — 12 monthly investment||ripening period - 1- 2 months. Harvesting - up 30 once a year||from 300||from 89,85 rubles per kilogram||from 26 956,8|
|1 — 12 monthly investment||ripening period 3-4 months. Harvesting - up 20 once a year||from 120||from 47 rubles per kilogram||from 5 616|
|1 — 12 monthly investment||ripening period - 6 months. and more months. Harvesting - up 5 once a year||from 200||from 25 rubles per kilogram||from 5 148|
|13- 24 monthly investment||ripening period - 1- 2 months. Harvesting - up 30 once a year||from 500||from 95,94 rubles per kilogram||from 47 970|
|13-24 monthly investment||ripening period 3-4 months. Harvesting - up 20 once a year||from 300||from 52,65 rubles per kilogram||from 15 795|
|13-24 monthly investment||ripening period - 6 months. and more months. Harvesting - up 5 once a year||from 400||from 29,25 rubles per kilogram||from 11 700|
|25 -36 monthly investment||ripening period - 1- 2 months. Harvesting - up 30 once a year||from 550||from 111,15 rubles per kilogram||from 61 132,5|
|25 -36 monthly investment||ripening period 3-4 months. Harvesting - up 20 once a year||from 350||from 58,5 rubles per kilogram||from 20475|
|25- 36 monthly investment||ripening period - 6 months. and more months. Harvesting - up 5 once a year||from 450||from 35,1 rubles per kilogram||from 15 795|