many businessmen, intending to send a request for a loan for business development in the selected bank, wonder about, how it calculated the maximum possible amount, which the bank may issue a potential creditor.
We can immediately note, that are used in each banking institution its methods for determining the maximum loan amount, but some are present in all ways the same basis points, consisting:
1. assessment of profitability
Banking institution relates the possibility of granting credit a particular client and his plateesposobnost by evaluating a given client's business. To this end, the sum of net profit (defined as gross profit minus production and administrative costs) commensurate with the size of monthly payments on the loan. Monthly loan repayment does not exceed 70% of net profit. The most favorable is the ratio, when the credit payout is approximately 50-60% net income. For example, if the monthly net income is 500 000 rubles, the fee for a loan must not exceed 350 000 rubles.
2. Analysis of the structure and the balance of the composition
The Bank carries out a detailed analysis of the structure and composition of the balance. If the organization has leveraged more than 60-65% the common property of the organization, in most cases the loan is denied, or credit amount will be greatly reduced. Under borrowed funds in this case means:
- arrears of wages;
- debts to the budget;
- loans to other banks;
- payable to suppliers.
3. The analysis of the legality of doing business
In order to determine the maximum amount of the loan, Bank analyzes the legality of doing business. To this corresponds the official size of revenues and the actual figures. Non-compliance of these indicators is an urgent problem for small and medium-sized businesses in Russia.
Banking institutions may use different approaches for determining the legality of doing business, but the main criterion remains the same - the higher the size of the desired loan amount, the higher the figure should be legality. In outline, performance ratio is in a certain relationship:
- for a loan of up to 10 million. rubles indicator of legality must be equal to not less than 20-25%;
- for the credit amount over 10 million. rubles - more 50%;
- credit amount over 100 million. rubles - percentage value should exceed the legality 75%.
4. Confirmation of credit due to collateral
Many businesses believe, that the provision of collateral to confirm its own solvency the chances of a favorable decision of the bank to grant the loan amount in the claimed amount up 100%, but in reality the situation is somewhat different.
Financial services prerogative stands stable financial condition of the organization, than the value of the collateral (provided liquidity). However, the latter figure is also affected by a positive bank's decision.
As a percentage of the value of collateral must be higher than the loan amount to 35-50%.
Summary and example of calculating the maximum loan amount
To obtain a loan for the purchase of fixed assets, its maximum amount is defined as the product of the average monthly revenue and the desired loan period, taking into account the proportion of borrowed funds on the balance sheet organization, coefficient legal business and the availability of collateral.
As an example, calculate the maximum loan amount you can:
Company "A" has sent a request to the bank for a loan (for the acquisition of production equipment) to the amount of 30 million. rubles for 5 years old.
Information about the organization:
- Net profit for the year - 20 million. rubles.
- balance Result (total assets) – 120 million. rubles.
- Borrowed funds - 40 million. rubles. Their share in the balance sheet - 30%.
- Pledge - production plant and equipment, which is the cost of 50 million. rubles.
These circumstances a potential borrower's financial status allow us to conclude a loan in the requested amount with almost total probability.
In this way, for, to estimate the size of the maximum amount, which may be available on the company's credit terms, Bank carried out a detailed analysis of the economic condition of the potential borrower, taking into account key aspects:
- assessment of profitability;
- Analysis of the structure and the balance of the composition;
- Analysis of the potential and the legality of doing business;
- Confirmation of credit due to collateral.